It is easy enough, no doubt, for any one who is so inclined, to neutralize all that the Church can say, by a dexterous use of party-feeling: easy, to call it a device of the State for upholding a particular set of opinions. But the matter may be brought to a short issue. If attachment to the cause of our injured King, and sympathy with his high-minded patience, were not in entire harmony with the principles inculcated in all other parts of the Prayer-Book: if Sanderson, Hammond, and Taylor, those Restorers of our fallen Church, spoke otherwise on the duty of subjects, than as former generations of true Churchmen had spoken: then we might perhaps have cause to fear, that Feeling had got the better of Reason, in this one portion of our yearly solemnities. But if they “all speak the same thing, and there be no division among them;” and (what is infinitely more) if what they speak be altogether scriptural: if the doctrine of submission and loyal obedience be only one inseparable branch of the universal doctrine of resignation and contentment—an ingredient of that unreserved Faith, without which it is impossible to please God—then let us bless our Preserver, for not leaving us without special witness to a part of our duty, where all experience has proved us so likely to go wrong. Let us trust our civil welfare to the Gospel rule of non-resistance, as fearlessly as we trust our domestic happiness to the kindred rule of filial obedience. Such conduct, if universal, would be a perfect security to liberty: inasmuch as the same principle which forbids illegal resistance, would equally forbid being agents in illegal oppression. And they who abide by it, be they many or few, have for their warrant the general tenor and express word of Revelation, the example of our Blessed Lord, His Apostles, and His suffering Church. In every case, the burthen of proof lies wholly on those who plead for resistance.
And what if young men—the high-born especially—instead of that degrading ambition of commencing, early, “men of the world,” would consent to shape their own conduct by the noble simplicity and downright goodness of him, whom we this day commemorate? the secret of whose excellence lay, chiefly, in two qualities, by them most imitable: consistent purity of heart and demeanour, and strict constancy in devotional duties, under the guidance of his and our Church? Does any one believe that such a change would leave society at all a loser, in point of true generosity and courtesy, or whatever else makes life engaging?
But if all this must still be unheard—if the instruction of the day be quite drowned, in men’s eager cry for what is called Freedom: at least the service answers the purpose of a solemn appeal from human prejudice, to Him, before whom king and subject must ere long appear together. To whose final and unerring decision, not, it is hoped, with presumptuous confidence, nor yet with any uncharitable thought, but in cheerful assurance that resignation and loyalty can “in no wise lose their reward,” we desire, now and always, to “commit our cause.”
Sermon V. Danger of Sympathizing with Rebellion. Preached by John Keble before the University of Oxford, 30 January 1831.
The reader may have met with the story of the “King of the Cats,” in Lord Lyttleton’s Letters. It is well known in the Highlands as a nursery tale.
Sir Walter Scott.
A traveller, benighted in a wild and mountainous country, (if my recollection does not fail me, in the Highlands of Scotland), at length beholds the welcome light of a neighbouring habitation. He urges his horse towards it; when, instead of an house, he approached a kind of illuminated chapel, from whence issued the most alarming sounds he had ever heard. Though greatly surprised and terrified, he ventured to look through a window of the building, when he was amazed to see a large assembly of cats, who, arranged in solemn order, were lamenting over the corpse of one of their own species, which lay in state, and was surrounded with the various emblems of sovereignty. Alarmed and terrified at this extraordinary spectacle, he hastened from the place with greater eagerness than he approached it; and arriving, some time after, at the house of a gentleman who never turned the wanderer from his gate, the impressions of what he had seen were so visible on his countenance, that his friendly host enquired into the cause of his anxiety. He accordingly told his story, and, having finished it, a large family cat, who had lain, during the narrative, before the fire, immediately started up, and very articulately exclaimed, “Then I am King of the Cats!” and, having thus announced its new dignity, the animal darted up the chimney and was seen no more.
— “Letter XXXIX” Lyttelton, 2nd Baron Lyttelton, Thomas, Letters of the Late Lord Lyttleton (ed. William Combe, 1807).
O Lord our God, God of Power and Might, powerful in strength, strong in battle, You once gave miraculous strength to Your child David granting him victory over his opponent the blasphemer Goliath. Mercifully accept our humble prayer. Send Your heavenly blessing upon these weapons. Give to them power and strength that they may protect Your holy Church, the poor and the widows, and Your holy inheritance on earth, and make them horrible and terrible to any enemy army, and grant victory to Your people for your glory, for You are our strength and protection and unto You do we send up praise and glory, to the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to the ages of ages. Amen.
— A prayer from a service for the Blessing of Weapons,
Trebnik of the Serbian Orthodox Church (1993).
Prayed I then to the Lord my God, and made confession of my sins, in these words following: Mercy, mercy, Lord God, the great, the terrible; to those who love thee, so gracious, with those who keep thy commandments, troth keeping still! Sinned we have, and wronged thee, rebelled we have, and forsaken thee, turned our backs on decree and award of thine, nor heeded thy servants, the prophets, that spoke to us in thy name, to king and prince and the common folk that gendered us. Fault with thee is none; ours, Lord, to blush for the wrong-doing that has offended thee, men of Juda, citizens of Jerusalem, Israel near at hand, Israel banished far away, in what plight thou seest! Blush we, king and prince of ours, fathers of ours that did the wrong; be it thine, O Lord our God, to have mercy and to forgive. So far we have strayed from thee, so deaf to the divine voice, when the prophets that served thee bade us follow thy law! A whole people that would transgress thy command, turn a deaf ear to thy calls! What wonder if it fell on us, drop by drop, the avenging curse God’s servant Moses wrote of? Our sins had deserved it, and if yonder unexampled punishment befell Jerusalem, it was but a threat fulfilled; warning we had of it, we and the princes that governed us. No misfortune overtook us, but the law of Moses had foretold it; and yet, O Lord our God, appease thy anger we would not, nor leave our sinning, nor bethink ourselves, how well thy word thou keenest; what wonder if bane, not blessing, the divine regard brought us? Be our punishment what it will, not ours to find fault with the God we have disobeyed.
Thou art the Lord our God, whose constraining power rescued thy people from the land of Egypt, who hast won thyself glory, too, in this our day; we, Lord, have been sinners, we have shewn ourselves unworthy of all thy faithful dealings with us. But wilt thou let thy indignant anger fall on Jerusalem, on that holy mountain of thine? Too long, for our sins and the sins of our fathers before us, all our neighbours have held Jerusalem, and us thy people, in contempt. God of our race, give audience at last to the prayer, the plea thy servant brings before thee; for thy own honour, restore the sanctuary, that now lies forlorn, to the smile of thy favour. My God, give ear and listen to us; open thy eyes, and see how desolate is this city of ours, that claims to be thy own. No merits of ours, nothing but thy great love emboldens us to lay our prayers at thy feet. Thy hearing, Lord, and thy pardon; thy heed, Lord, and thy aid! For thy own honour, my God, deny thyself no longer to the city, the people that is called thy own!
Gun Salute, 10–Hour Tour Greet British Royal Couple
By John Kinnier
Times–Dispatch News Bureau
WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—Virginians welcomed Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip Wednesday with a booming 21–gun salute and a crowded 10–hour schedule of history, hospitality and occasionally clamorous acclamation.
The royal visit to Jamestown and Williamsburg, the first ever by a reigning British monarch, was a historic occasion recognized by the queen in several brief, graceful speeches during the day.
At Jamestown, a focal point of the queen’s American visit, the overseas expansion of the English–speaking people began and the British Commonwealth of Nations got its start.
“The great American nation was born at this historic place, 350 years ago,” Elizabeth said as she was welcomed by Governor Stanley at Jamestown Festival Park.
“I cannot think of a more appropriate point for us to start our visit to the United States,” she said.
“The settlement in Jamestown was the beginning of a series of overseas settlements made throughout the world by British pioneers. Jamestown grew and became the United States. Those other settlements grew and became nations now united in our great commonwealth.
“This festival illustrates these two stories, yours and ours. They are stories in which all of us, in the United States, in Britain, and throughout the commonwealth take a special pride. In essence, they are both stories of experiments and adventures in freedom,” she said.
Asks Ideals Be Pursued
Elizabeth asked that the ideals of the Jamestown settlers who established the first lasting British colony in the New World be pursued with faith and determination “so that 350 years from now our descendants will be as proud of us as we are of our forefathers.”
The queen’s full schedule, followed for the most part with split–second timing, included military honors upon her arrival at Patrick Henry Airport, a religious service in the Old Tower Church on Jamestown island, a hurried tour of the main exhibits at Jamestown Festival Park, tea at the College of William and Mary, an informal reception for some 1,500 guests at the Governor’s Palace and a state dinner at the Williamsburg Inn attended by the Governor and members of the state and federal festival commissions.
State police estimated that 50,000 persons saw the queen at Patrick Henry Airport, Williamsburg, Jamestown and along the route she took Wednesday on the first day of her visit to the United States.
It was a demanding schedule which began promptly at 1:30 p.m. as the queen stepped smilingly from the door of the Royal Canadian Air Force plane which brought the royal party from Ottawa and ended some 10 hours later as the queen and Prince Philip said goodnight to their dinner hosts at the Williamsburg Inn.
Throughout the day, the queen appeared calm, unhurried and happy; interested in the things she was shown and in the several dozen persons to whom she spoke.
The big Canadian plane touched ground at 1:27 p.m. and taxied to the point where the official welcoming party, headed by Wiley T. Buchanan, chief of protocol for the State Department, Governor Stanley and British Ambassador Sir Harold Caccia, had gathered. A crowd, estimated by state police at 10,000 persons, had been waiting nearly two hours.
Elizabeth stepped from the plane, paused an almost imperceptible moment, and smiled. Prince Philip followed almost at once, also smiling.
The queen walked slowly down the line of waiting officials and their wives, greeting each of them, then stood with Governor Stanley as the 82d Airborne Division band played “God Save the Queen” and the national anthem.
As the strains of the music died, an army battery fired a 21–gun salute. The queen and Governor Stanley, escorted by Maj. Lehman C. Black of the airborne unit, then reviewed an honor guard made up of members of each branch of the armed forces. Flags of the 10 British commonwealth nations and the American flag fluttered from standards borne by an army unit.
The queen left the airport with Buchanan and the Governor in President Eisenhower’s “bubble–top” limousine, brought from Washington by secret service personnel for the day. Prince Philip rode in a following car with Mrs. Buchanan and Mrs. Stanley.
LORDE, we beseche thee mercifully to heare us, and unto whom thou hast geven an heartie desyre to pray; graunt that by thy mightie ayde we may be defended; through Jesus Christ our Lorde.
The royal entourage drove to Jamestown island, some 20 miles away, for a worship service in the old church of 1639. There the Rt. Rev. George P. Gunn, bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Southern Virginia, read a special prayer for the royal family and recited the prayer used during the first recorded communion service at Jamestown June 21, 1607.
Elizabeth bowed her head solemnly as prayers were offered up for the President, the queen and peace among nations. And as a gift, she received a hand wrought copy of the church’s original silver communion service.
From Jamestown island, the royal couple was whisked to the court of welcome at Festival Park for a red–carpet reception from the full membership of both festival commissions and a crowd which state police Inspector P. W. Crews estimated at more than 10,000. The queen stood poised and solemn on the speakers’ dais as a marine corps band played “God Save the Queen” and the national anthem. The Union Jack was lowered from its flagpole and the royal standard was raised.
In welcoming the queen to the festival, Governor Stanley said that from the very inception of the plans for the Jamestown celebration, it had been “our fond hope that the reigning Sovereign of Britain might grace the celebration.”
“Here at Jamestown was born Britain’s greatest ally in the cause of freedom and justice,” he said.
Lewis McMurran, chairman of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission, escorted the queen and her party on a tour of the Old World Pavilion, the British exhibit at the park, and the reconstructed James Forte.
The tour’s only unscheduled stop came at the full–scale copies of the three ships which brought the settlers to Jamestown. The couple had not been scheduled to board the vessels but they climbed the gangplank of the Susan Constant, largest of the ships.
As the queen and Philip left the ship and prepared to go to Williamsburg, a flight of 18 jet bombers—six from the Royal Air Force, six from the United States Navy and six from the United States Air Force—roared across the sky above the ship in an aerial salute.
Before leaving Festival Park for Williamsburg, Philip paused once more to speak to several children waving Union Jacks and crying, “Long live the queen.” They were children of Mrs. Louis Zuzma of Williamsburg, formerly of Australia, and of Mrs. L. T. Warriner, a Williamsburg resident who formerly lived in England.
From the park, Elizabeth and Philip came here to the home of Alvin D. Chandler, president of the College of William and Mary, and Mrs. Chandler where they had tea at 4:20 pm.
Twenty–five minutes later, the queen led the royal party to the Christopher Wren Building on the college campus. Additional crowds waited outside the building for a glimpse of the queen. On a small balcony draped with green and yellow bunting the royal couple exchanged gifts with James M. Robertson, rector of the board of visitors of the college, and Chandler.
The queen praised the “first college of royal foundation” in North America. I cherish this link between the crown and your college…because it is a part of our joint histories, particularly as it is a part of our histories in which we can both take pride. It also demonstrates the very close association which always existed between learning, the arts and sciences of our countries,” she said.
The queen gave the college a copy of the statutes of the Order of the Garter which had been presented to Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, the nephew of King William, “some three years after he and Queen Mary had granted a charter to their royal college in Virginia.”
The college in turn gave the queen a portfolio of original line drawings of college buildings.
After leaving the college, Elizabeth and Philip mounted a horse drawn phaeton for a 20–minute ride down Duke of Gloucester St. to the Governor’s Palace. Riding with the queen and Philip were Winthrop Rockefeller, chairman of the board of Colonial Williamsburg and Mrs. Rockefeller.
At the palace some 1,500 persons nibbled on 4,000 hot hors d’oeuvres, 5,000 cold canapes and Dutch sandwiches.
At the reception, the queen passed slowly though a long open column of guests, stopping frequently to have persons presented to her. Several steps behind, Philip chatted with guests along the way.
Following the reception the queen and Philip made a short inspection of the restored Colonial Capitol and then were driven to the Williamsburg Inn to dress for dinner. They entered the inn and ended there the public portion of their local visit, at 6:50.
Icollumkill, antiently called Iona, lays from Colle to the south and south-east about thirty-six myils of sea, and is distant from the south end of Mulle about one myil of sea. It is two myills in lenth, and almost from east to west, and one mile in bredth. It is very fertill; commodious for fishing and fowling. It hes two fresh water lochs, goud springs, and medicinall herbs.
Here the sea casteth up in one place a number of small stones of divers collours, and transparente, very fair to looke upon; they are really peculiar to the place, for the longer they lay upon the shoar, they reapen and turn more lively in their coulors, yield to the feil, and admits of gouid polishing and engraving. Marble also, of divers colours, and with beautyful vains, is found in this Illand. It hes been counted renound pairtly for the goud discipline of Columbus, who is buried in it, and partly for the monuments of the place; for it has two monastryes, one of monks, another of nuns; a church of considerable dimensions dedicated to Columbus.
This hes been the Cathedrall of the Bishops of the Illes since Sodora in the Ill of Man came into the Englishes hands. In this Illand are many other small chapells; the vestiges of a citie is yet visible in it, which, as some old manuscripts testifie, was called Sodora.
Many of the Kings of Scotland, some of the Kings of Ireland and Noraway, were buryet heer. Many tombs appropriat to the families of the Illanders, as ther inscriptions, though now allmost obliterate, do testify; heer the famous Columbus himself was also interred. The coast round about Iona is very bade, full of rocks and violent tides. The whole Illand is Church land, so is also a goud pairt of Tyrie, the Ill of Gonna wholly, and the two ends of Colle. It is remarkable that there is in Iona a few people called to this day Ostiarii, from their office about the Church in Columbus’ tyme; this people never exceed the number of eight persons in perfyte age; this is found to had true, and there is a tradition that for some miscarriage in ther predecessors in Columbus’ tyme this malediction was left them. The inhabitants of all the said Illands are naturally civill and bountiful, right capable of all goud instructions. All thir Illands have been possossed by M’Leane and the cadette of his family.
— Description of Iona by Rev. John Fraser, an Episcopal clergyman in the Highlands, who was the author of a “Treatise on Second Sight,” printed at Edinburgh, 1707; from the collections of MacFarlane of MacFarlane and published in The Spottiswoode Miscellany: A Collection of Original Papers and Tracts, Illustrative Chiefly of the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, Spottiswoode Society, 1845.
The Spectator has a very silly and indelicate article under the above caption, in which it charges the Legislature, “by nearly a unanimous vote,” with having “pledged Virginia to fight the battles of South Carolina.” This is all twaddle, and an abortive attempt at raw-head-and- bloody-bones to frighten the people. The call of a Convention is to prevent war and bloodshed; rather than precipitate them. If any body of men in the universe could be placed in a position to save this country from carnage and civil war, it will be a Convention of delegates fresh from the sovereign people of Virginia. It is admitted on all sides, that Virginia’s relations to the Union are such as to be more potential for restoring peace and harmony than any other State. How would it be possible to make known her wishes and position, save through a body authorized by the people to represent their sentiments. Any action Virginia may take through her Convention will be for the conservation of peace, if that is possible. If War is inevitable, which we by no means believe, then what body so proper as the Convention to define the purpose of the Old Dominion? Be the result of our present difficulties peace or war, a Convention is the safest and most legitimate body to act for the State.
The idea of pledging Virginia to fight the battles of any State is simply ridiculous. If the madness of Black Republican fanaticism and treachery should ever attempt to coerce any seceding State, the question would become one embracing the constitutional rights of every Southern State that repudiates the right of coercion, and the conflict would become one of the South, defending the Constitution, against the North, violating it. In that event, Virginia would have as many battles of her own to fight as she could desire, without sending her armies to the cotton and rice fields of the extreme South.
It is a conflict we desire to prevent. If we send the proper men to the Convention, that conflict may be prevented. It is the solemn and sacred duty of the people therefore, to come to the polls on the 4th day of February and cast their votes for such men as they can trust, irrespective of Court-house recommendations or partizan influences. There will be no infamy too intense or degradation too deep, for the man whose craven soul would allow party considerations or associations to decide these momentous questions for him. A weightier responsibility never rested upon any people than the voters of Virginia will be called to assume on the 4th of February. Let each man meet it like a freeman, who in the sight of God and his loyalty to his State and country, feels like proving his patriotism and asserting his adherence to the Federal Constitution as framed by our fathers.
— Republican Vindicator (Staunton, Virginia), 18 January 1861.
By veracity we understand a certain habit by which a man, both in his actions and in his words, shows himself to be that which he really is, neither more nor less. This, although not a legal, is a moral duty; for it is a debt which every man, in honesty, owes to his neighbour and the manifestation of truth is an essential part of justice.
It has been above said, that the holy Pulcheria built many churches to Christ at Constantinople. Of these, however, there is one which was built in Blachernæ, in the beginning of Marcian I’s reign of divine memory. These, therefore, namely, Marcian and Pulcheria, when they had built a venerable temple to the greatly to be celebrated and most holy mother of God and ever Virgin Mary, and had decked it with all ornaments, sought her most holy body, which had conceived God. And having sent for Juvenal, Archbishop of Jerusalem, and the bishops of Palestine, who were living in the royal city on account of the synod then held at Chalcedon, they say to them, “We hear that there is in Jerusalem the first and famous Church of Mary, mother of God and ever Virgin, in the garden called Gethsemane, where her body which bore the Life was deposited in a coffin. We wish, therefore, her relics to be brought here for the protection of this royal city.” But Juvenal answered, “In the holy and divinely inspired Scripture, indeed, nothing is recorded of the departure of holy Mary, mother of God. But from an ancient and most true tradition we have received, that at the time of her glorious falling asleep, all the holy Apostles who were going through the world for the salvation of the nations, in a moment of time borne aloft, came together at Jerusalem. And when they were near her, they had a vision of angels, and divine melody of the highest powers was heard: and thus with divine and more than heavenly glory, she delivered her holy soul into the hands of God in an unspeakable manner. But that which had conceived God being borne with angelic and apostolic psalmody, with funeral rites, was deposited in a coffin in Gethsemane. In this place the chorus and singing of the angels continued for three whole days. But after three days, on the angelic music ceasing, since one of the Apostles had been absent, and came after the third day, and wished to adore the body which had conceived God, the Apostles, who were present, opened the coffin; but the body, pure and every way to be praised, they could not at all find. And when they found only those things in which it had been laid out and placed there, and were filled with an ineffable fragrancy proceeding from those things, they shut the coffin. Being astounded at the miraculous mystery, they could form no other thought, but that He, who in his own person had vouchsafed to be clothed with flesh, and to be made man of the most holy Virgin, and to be born in the flesh, God the Word, and Lord of Glory, and who after birth had preserved her virginity immaculate, had seen it good after she had departed from among the living, to honour her uncontaminated and unpolluted body by a translation before the common and universal resurrection.”
— Narrative of a certain Euthymius, whose report was inserted into a homily of St. John Damascene (hom. II in dormit. B. V. M., 18, P. G., XCVI, 748).
King Alexander, then lying in Kiararey-sound, dreamed a dream, and thought three men came to him. He thought one of them was in royal robes, but very stern, ruddy in countenance, somewhat thick, and of middling size. Another seemed of a slender make, but active, and of all men the most engaging, and majestic. The third again, was of very great stature, but his features were distorted, and of all the rest he was the most unsightly. They addressed their speech to the King, and enquired whether he meant to invade the Hebrides. Alexander thought he answered that he certainly proposed to subject the islands. The Genius of the vision bade him go back; and told him no other measure would turn out to his advantage. The King related his dream; and many advised him to return. But the King would not; and a little after he was seized with a disorder, and died. The Scottish army then broke up; and they removed the King’s body to Scotland. The Hebridians say that the men whom the King saw in his sleep were St Olave King of Norway, St Magnus Earl of Orkney, and St Columba.
— The Norwegian Account of Haco’s Expedition Against Scotland,
Rev. James Johnstone, A.M., pp. 10-13.
Huius talis honorificentiae viro honorabili ab Omnipotente caelitus collatae etiam unum proferemus exemplum, quod Ossualdo regnatori Saxonico, pridie quam contra Catlonem Britonum regem fortissimum praeliaretur, ostensum erat. Nam cum idem Ossualdus rex esset in procinctu belli castra metatus, quadam die in suo papilione supra pulvillum dormiens, sanctum Columbam in visu videt forma coruscantem angelica; cuius alta proceritas vertice nubes tangere videbatur.