Take the Hatchet into Y’r Hands

Portrait of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, by an unknown artist, c. 1760-1765, National Portrait Gallery, London.
Portrait of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, by an unknown artist, c. 1760-1765, National Portrait Gallery, London.

MESSAGE OF GOVERNOR DINWIDDIE TO THE SIX NATIONS
January 1754.

Brethren of the Six Nat’s:

Since the Designs of Y’r Enemies can be no longer doubted of, and it is manifest that they intend to deprive You of Y’r hunting Grounds on the Ohio, and Liberties, and to break the Peace that they have pretended to maintain with us, I have therefore thought proper as Y’r good Friend and Brother to let You know that I have given Com’o and Orders to my Officers to join You with some Forces if You will take the Hatchet into Y’r Hands. And as there is no Quest’n but that Y’r Enemy may be now easily driven away if not suffer’d to become more numerous, I do therefore advise You not to loose any Time, but imediately to send out Y’r Warriors; to whose Assistance I propose in a short Time to send a considerable Number of our Soldiers. Wishing You Health and Success I bid You Farewell.

Unexceptionable Conduct

Re-enactors wait for the Battle of Prestonpans to commence.
Re-enactors wait for the Battle of Prestonpans to commence.

But the most extraordinary Part of the ensuing Report, and what I conceive will be digested by the Publick with the most Reluctancy, is, the Account therein given of the Battle of Preston-pans. For, surely, after the Prepossessions which have so long prevailed, it will not be easily credited that the Field of Battle for the King’s Troops, was well chosen; that their Disposition was prudent, that the Army was perfectly formed before the Rebels attacked it; that after the Dragoons, both on the Right and Left went off, the Foot stood and were broken, gradually, from the Right, as the Enemy who first attacked the Right, moved up the Line. That Sir John Cope remained with the Foot till they were utterly routed, and exerted himself all he could, to have rallied them, and, if possible, to have retrieved the Affair; that at last, seeing the Foot totally dispersed, he then, and not till then, rode to the Dragoons, whose Flight had been retarded by a Park-Wall in the Rear, and tryed his utmost, in vain, to rally them, and to march them against the Enemy. That, indeed, when they had ran through the Village of Preston, 450 of them were collected, and persuaded to stand; but a Party of the Rebels appearing in Sight, their old Pannick returned, so that all the Intreaties of Sir John Cope, and the Officers who were with him, could not prevail on them to charge; that therefore, as nothing was then to be expected from them, no other Step could be taken than to march to Berwick. All these Circumstances of the Battle, how well soever supported by the most unquestioned Evidence, will yet, I presume, be insufficient, immediately, to destroy the contrary Opinions which have, so long, possessed Men’s Minds; and therefore, as I myself found it difficult to Master my Prepossessions, and impartially to weigh the Varacity of these Facts, I will lay before my Countrymen, the Reasons, which in Opposition to my former Sentiments, have prevailed with me to assent to the Report, and to believe, the Conduct of Sir John Cope at the Battle of Preston-pans to have been unexceptionable.

Preface to A Report of the Proceeding and Opinion of the Board of General Officers on Their Examination into the Conduct, Behaviour, and Proceedings of Lieutenant-General Sir John Cope et al., from the outbreak of the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, until the Battle of Prestonpans (21 September 1745) inclusive. Conducted 1746; published 1749.

* * *

Hey, Johnnie Cope, Are Ye Waking Yet?

Cope sent a challenge frae Dunbar,
Sayin ‘Charlie meet me an’ ye daur;
An’ I’ll learn ye the airts o’ war,
If ye’ll meet me in the morning.’

Chorus

Hey! Johnnie Cope are ye waukin’ yet?
Or are your drums a-beating yet?
If ye were waukin’ I wad wait,
Tae gang tae the coals in the morning.

When Charlie looked the letter upon,
He drew his sword its scabbard from,
‘Come, follow me, my merry men,
And we’ll meet Johnnie Cope in the morning.’

Now Johnnie, be as good as your word,
Come, let us try baith fire and sword,
And dinna flee like a frichted bird,
That’s chased frae its nest i’ the morning.

When Johnnie Cope he heard o’ this,
He thocht it wouldna be amiss,
Tae hae a horse in readiness,
Tae flee awa in the morning.

Fye now, Johnnie, get up an’ rin,
The Highland bagpipes mak’ a din,
It’s better tae sleep in a hale skin,
For it will be a bluidie morning.

When Johnnie Cope tae Dunbar cam,
They speired at him, ‘Where’s a’ your men?’
‘The de’il confound me gin I ken,
For I left them a’ in the morning.’

Now Johnnie, troth ye werena blate,
Tae come wi’ news o’ your ain defeat,
And leave your men in sic a strait,
Sae early in the morning.

‘In faith’, quo Johnnie, ‘I got sic flegs
Wi’ their claymores an’ philabegs,
Gin I face them again, de’il brak my legs,
So I wish you a’ good morning.’

Adam Skirving.

Lest My Fury Go Out Like Fire

Pope Francis, center, opens the afternoon session of a two-week synod on family issues at the Vatican, Monday, Oct. 6, 2014. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
Pope Francis, center, opens the afternoon session of a two-week synod on family issues at the Vatican, Monday, Oct. 6, 2014. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)

The word which came unto Jeremiah from the Lord, when king Zedekiah sent unto him Pashur the son of Melchiah, and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest, saying,

Enquire, I pray thee, of the Lord for us; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon maketh war against us; if so be that the Lord will deal with us according to all his wondrous works, that he may go up from us.

Then said Jeremiah unto them, Thus shall ye say to Zedekiah:

Thus saith the Lord God of Israel; Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans, which besiege you without the walls, and I will assemble them into the midst of this city.

And I myself will fight against you with an outstretched hand and with a strong arm, even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath.

And I will smite the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast: they shall die of a great pestilence.

And afterward, saith the Lord, I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life: and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy.

And unto this people thou shalt say, Thus saith the Lord; Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death.

He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: but he that goeth out, and falleth to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey.

For I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good, saith the Lord: it shall be given into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire.

And touching the house of the king of Judah, say, Hear ye the word of the Lord;

O house of David, thus saith the Lord; Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.

Behold, I am against thee, O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, saith the Lord; which say, Who shall come down against us? or who shall enter into our habitations?

But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings, saith the Lord: and I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof, and it shall devour all things round about it.

Jeremias xxi.

Examplary the Wrong Way

William Hogarth's The Idle 'Prentice Executed at Tyburn, from the Industry and Idleness series (1747).
William Hogarth’s The Idle ‘Prentice Executed at Tyburn, from the Industry and Idleness series (1747).

If no remedy can be found for these evils [the disorders of the Tyburn procession] it would be better that Malefactors should be put to death in private; for our publick executions are become decoys, that draw in the necessitous, and in effect as cruel as frequent pardons, instead of giving warning they are examplary the wrong way, and encourage where they should deter.

Bernard de Mandeville, Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Execution, London, 1725.

Fopperies of the Papists

Martyrs in Flames: or The History of Popery. Displaying the horrid persecutions and cruelties, exercised upon Protestants by the Papists for many hundred years past, to this time. In, Piedmont. France, with the massacre at Paris. Orange. Ephemia. Germany. Poland. Lithuania. Italy. Spain, with the bloody Inquisition. Portugal. Holland. Flanders. Scotland. Ireland, with the massacre in 1641. and England. Containing an account of I. The martyrs in the reign of King Henry VIII. and Queen Mary. II. The Spanish invasion 1588. III. The Gun-powder Treason 1605. IV. The fire of London 1666. V. The horrid Popish plot in 1678. VI. The marther of Sir Edmunbury Godfrey. VII. The detectable conspiracies of the Papists, and their adherents against K. William III. 1. By Grandivile a Frenchman. 2. By Charnock, Sir Wil. Perkins, Sir John Friend, Sir John Fenwick, and others, with their tryals and execution[.] Also Gods judgments upon persecutors. With several pictures By R.B. (London: Nath. Crouch, 1700).
Martyrs in Flames: or The History of Popery. Displaying the horrid persecutions and cruelties, exercised upon Protestants by the Papists for many hundred years past, to this time. In, Piedmont. France, with the massacre at Paris. Orange. Ephemia. Germany. Poland. Lithuania. Italy. Spain, with the bloody Inquisition. Portugal. Holland. Flanders. Scotland. Ireland, with the massacre in 1641. and England. Containing an account of I. The martyrs in the reign of King Henry VIII. and Queen Mary. II. The Spanish invasion 1588. III. The Gun-powder Treason 1605. IV. The fire of London 1666. V. The horrid Popish plot in 1678. VI. The marther of Sir Edmunbury Godfrey. VII. The detectable conspiracies of the Papists, and their adherents against K. William III. 1. By Grandivile a Frenchman. 2. By Charnock, Sir Wil. Perkins, Sir John Friend, Sir John Fenwick, and others, with their tryals and execution[.] Also Gods judgments upon persecutors. With several pictures By R.B. (London: Nath. Crouch, 1700).

I went to see the fopperies of the Papists at Somerset House and York House, where now the French Ambassador had caused to be represented our Blessed Saviour with his Disciples in figures and puppets, made as big as the life, of wax-work, curiously clad and sitting round large table, the room nobly hung and shining with innumerable lamps and candles. This was exposed to all the world; all the City came to see it; such liberty had Roman Catholics at this time obtained!

John Evelyn, Diary, 4 April 1672.

Seventeenth Century LITURGICAL PUPPETS?

Battle Flag of the Republic of Novorossiya

A woman walks with the Battle Flag of Novorossiya during a rally in Lenin Square, in the centre of Donetsk, 4 October 2014.
A woman walks with the Battle Flag of Novorossiya during a rally in Lenin Square, in the centre of Donetsk, 4 October 2014.

It’s a red flag with a blue Saint Andrew’s cross. The flag of the Russian Navy. Of the Navy, which played a prominent military role in the emergence and establishment of the historical Novorossiya.

Izvestia, 20 March 2014.

My Hower Is Past

Memento mori, oil on canvas (49 x 40 cm) by anonymous artist; Augustinermuseum Rattenberg, Austria.
Memento mori, oil on canvas (49 x 40 cm) by anonymous artist; Augustinermuseum Rattenberg, Austria.

Near this place lyeth the body of Ann Clark of town, Midwife, who departed this life the 12th day January, 1733, Aged 77 years.

Memento Mori.

On harmless babes I did attend
Whilst I on earth my life did spend,
To help the helpless in their need,
I ready was with care and speed,
Many from Pain my hands I did free,
But none from death could rescue me,
My glass is run, my hower is past,
And yours is coming all so fast.

Epitaph in churchyard of St. George, Tiverton.

Caput Apri Defero

Arms of Queen's College, Oxford: Argent, three eagles displayed gules, beaked and legged or, on the breast of the first, a mullet of six points of the last.
Arms of The Queen’s College, Oxford: Argent, three eagles displayed gules, beaked and legged or, on the breast of the first, a mullet of six points of the last.

The Boar’s Head at Oxford.

The ancient ceremony of serving up a boar’s head in the hall of Queen’s College, Oxford, at Christmas, is still observed with much pomp and ceremony. The boar’s head is borne on the shoulders of two of the college servants, preceded by the Provost and Fellows of the society, and followed by a procession of choristers and singing men, who sing the following ballad, the Precentor of Queen’s taking the solo part:–

The boar’s head in hand bring I,
Bedeck’d with bays and rosemary,
And I pray you my masters be merry.
Quot estis in convivio,
Caput estis in convivio
Reddens laudes Domino.

The boar’s head, as I understand,
Is the rarest dish in all the land:
Which thus bedeck’d with a gay garland,
Let us servire cantico
Caput apri defero,
Reddens laudes Domino.

Our stewards hath provided this
In honour of the King of Bliss,
Which on this day to be served is
In Reginensi Atrio,
Caput apri defero,
Reddens laudes Domino.

After the ceremony, the decorations of bays, rosemary, holly, artificial flowers, &c. are distributed among the visitors, the monster head is then placed upon the high table, and the members of the society proceed to dine. The origin of serving up the boar’s head at Queen’s College is somewhat obscure, but we glean from Pointer’s Oxon[i]ensis Academia that “it is in memory of a noble exploit, as tradition goes, by a scholar (a tabarder) of this College in killing a wild boar in Shotover Wood.” Having wandered into the wood, which is not far from Oxford, with a copy of Aristotle in his hand, and being attacked by a wild boar, who came at him with extended jaws, intending to make but a mouthful of him, he was enabled to conquer him by thrusting the Aristotle down the boar’s throat crying, “Græcum Est!” The animal, of course, fell prostrate at his feet, was carried in triumph to the College, and no doubt served up with an “old song,” as Mr Pointer says, in memory of this “noble exploit.”

— John Timbs, Notabilia, or Curious and Amusing Facts about Many Things, London: Griffith and Farran, 1872.

Geen Geld, Geen Zwitsers

Print from series Military Uniforms in America depicting members of Count de Meuron's Swiss Regiment, including a musician, a private, and a company officer. [Rutland, Mass.] : Company of Military Collectors & Historians, 1958.
Print from series Military Uniforms in America depicting members of Count de Meuron’s Swiss Regiment, including a musician, a private, and a company officer. [Rutland, Mass.] : Company of Military Collectors & Historians, 1958.

CAUTION TO TOURISTS.– The following comes from an old correspondent:– I strongly advise my countrymen not to reside in Lausanne, unless they are prepared to submit to police requirements and official impertinence. The Swiss were highly jubilant when they obtained freedom from passports in France; but since then the Lausanne police have been more exacting than ever, and have been serving notices on tourists and English residents to show their passports or pay a fine of six francs! This is gratitude with a vengeance! We may well say ‘point d’argent point de Suisse.’ –S.J.

Notes and Queries, 5th S. I. Mar. 21, ’74.

Yparroked in Puwes

Box pews in Bruton Parish Church, Williamsburg.
Box pews in Bruton Parish Church, Williamsburg.

What is the Earliest Reference to Pews?

It is hard to say whether the passage in Piers Plowman’s Vision is the earliest. It occurs at p. 95 of the edition of 1813, and is as follows:–

“Among wyvcs and wodewes ich am ywoned sute
Yparroked in puwes. The person hit knoweth.”

[Passus VII. p. 95 Ed. 1813.]

The interpretation of the passage is:–

Among wives and widows I am wont to sit
Y-parked in pues. The person knows it.”

‘Yparroked’ is supposed to come from the A.S. parruc, a croft, or small field ‘twinned off,’ as we say in Lancashire. [The “Vision of Piers Plowman” was written by Robert Langland, a secular priest, probably about the year 1362.] It is not to be inferred that the pew system existed at this time. The sexes being then separated, special seats for wives and widows, as a class, were set apart in many churches.

— John Timbs, Notabilia, or Curious and Amusing Facts about Many Things, London: Griffith and Farran, 1872.

Swaddlers

John Cennick.
John Cennick.

SWADDLERS. The term “Swaddler,” used by the Roman Catholics of Ireland to describe Protestants, had this origin:– “It happened that Cennick, preaching on Christmas-day, took for his text these words from St. Luke’s Gospel– ‘And this shall be a sign unto you; ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes lying in a manger.’ A Catholic who was present, and to whom the language of Scripture was a novelty, thought this so ludicrous that he called the preacher a swaddler in derision, and this unmeaning word became the nickname of the Methodists, and had all the effect of the most opprobrious appellation.”

Robert Southey, Life of Wesley, ii. 153.

No Such Mandate

Second Vatican Œcumenical Council.
Second Vatican Œcumenical Council.

The hermeneutic of discontinuity risks ending in a split between the pre-conciliar Church and the post-conciliar Church. It asserts that the texts of the [Second Vatican Œcumenical] Council as such do not yet express the true spirit of the Council. It claims that they are the result of compromises in which, to reach unanimity, it was found necessary to keep and reconfirm many old things that are now pointless. However, the true spirit of the Council is not to be found in these compromises but instead in the impulses toward the new that are contained in the texts.

These innovations alone were supposed to represent the true spirit of the Council, and starting from and in conformity with them, it would be possible to move ahead. Precisely because the texts would only imperfectly reflect the true spirit of the Council and its newness, it would be necessary to go courageously beyond the texts and make room for the newness in which the Council’s deepest intention would be expressed, even if it were still vague.

In a word: it would be necessary not to follow the texts of the Council but its spirit. In this way, obviously, a vast margin was left open for the question on how this spirit should subsequently be defined and room was consequently made for every whim.

The nature of a Council as such is therefore basically misunderstood. In this way, it is considered as a sort of constituent that eliminates an old constitution and creates a new one. However, the Constituent Assembly needs a mandator and then confirmation by the mandator, in other words, the people the constitution must serve. The Fathers had no such mandate and no one had ever given them one; nor could anyone have given them one because the essential constitution of the Church comes from the Lord and was given to us so that we might attain eternal life and, starting from this perspective, be able to illuminate life in time and time itself.

Address of His Holiness Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia Offering Them His Christmas Greetings, Thursday, 22 December 2005.