Newes from Virginia

Nevves from Virginia.
The lost Flocke
Triumphant
.

With the happy Arriuall of that famous and
worthy knight Sr. Thomas Gates: and the well
reputed & valiant Captaine Mr. Chri-
ſtopher Newporte, and others,
into England.

With the maner of their diſtreſſe in the
Iland of Deuils (otherwise called Bermoothawes)
where they remained 42. weekes, & builded
two Pynaces, in which they returned
into Virginia.

By R. Rich, Gent. one of the Voyage.

LONDON
Printed by Edw: Allde, and are to be solde by John Wright at Christ-Church dore. 1610.

* * *

To the Reader.

READER, how to stile thee I knowe not, perhaps Learned, perhaps unlearned: happily captious, happily envious: indeed, what or how to tearme thee I knowe not, only as I began I will proceede.

Reader, thou dost peradventure imagine that I am mercenarie in this busines, and write for money (as your moderne Poets use) hyred by some of those ever to be admired Adventurers to flatter the world: No, I disclaime it. I have knowne the Voyage, past the danger, seene that honorable work of Virginia, & I thanke God am arrivd here to tell thee what I have seene, don, & past: if thou wilt believe me so, if not so to: for I cannot force thee but to thy owne liking: I am a Soldier, blunt and plaine, and so is the phrase of my newes: and I protest it is true. If thou ask why I put it in Verse? I prethee knowe, it was only to feede mine owne humour: I must confesse, that had I not debard myselfe of that large scope which to the writing of prose is allowed, I should have much easd my selfe, and given thee better content. But I intreat thee to take this as it is; and before many daies expire, I will promise thee the same worke more at large.

I did feare prevention by some of your writers, if they should have gotten but some part of the newes by the tayle, and therefore though it be rude, let it passe with thy liking, and in so doing I shall like well of thee: but, how ever, I have not long to stay: if thou wilt be unnatural to thy countryman, thou maist, I must not loose my patrymonie; I am for Virginia againe, and so I will bid thee hartily farewell, with an honest verse:

As I came hether to see my native land,
To waft me backe lend me thy gentle hand.

Thy loving Country-man.
R. R.

* * *

Henricus Hondius, Map of Virginia, Atlas Major, 1630.

It is no idle fabulous tale, nor is it fayned newes:
For Truth herselfe is heere arriv’d, because you should not muse.
With her both Gates and Newport come, to tell Report doth lye:
Which did devulge unto the world, that they at Sea did dye.

Tis true that Eleaven monthes and more, these gallant worthy wights:
Was in the Shippe (Sea-venture nam’d) depriv’d Virginia’s sight.
And bravely did they glyde the maine, till Neptune gan to frowne:
As if a Courser prowdly backt, would throwe his ryder downe.

The Seas did rage, the windes did blowe, distressed were they then:
Their Ship did leake, her tacklings breake, in daunger were her men.
But heaven was Pylotte in this storme, and to an Iland nere,
Bermoothawes call’d, conducted then, which did abate their feare.

But yet these Worthies forced were, opprest with weather againe:
To runne their Ship betweene two Rockes, where she doth still remaine.
And then on shoare the Iland came, inhabited by Hogges:
Some Foule and Tortoyses there were, they only had one Dogge

To kill these swyne, to yeild them foode that little had to eate:
Their store was spent, and all things scant, alas they wanted meate.
A thousand hogges that dogge did kill, their hunger to sustaine:
And with such foode did in that Ile two and forty weekes remaine.

And there two gallant Pynases, did build of Seader-tree:
The brave Deliverance one was call’d, of seaventy Tonne was shee.
The other Patience had to name, her burthen thirty Tonne:
Two only of their men which there, pale death did overcome.

And for the losse of these two soules, which were accounted deere:
A Sonne and Daughter then was borne, and were Baptized there.
The two and forty weekes being past, they hoyst Sayle and away:
Their Ships with hogs well freighted were, their harts with mickle joy.

And so unto Virginia came, where these brave soldiers finde
The English-men opprest with greife and discontent in minde.
They seem’d distracted and forlorne, for those two worthyes losse:
Yet at their home returne they joyd, among’st them some were crosse.

And in the mid’st of discontent, came noble Delaware:
He heard the greifes on either part, and sett them free from care.
He comforts them and cheeres their hearts, that they abound with joy:
He feedes them full and feedes their soules, with Gods word every day.

A discreet counsell he creates, of men of worthy fame:
That noble Gates leiftenant was the Admirall had to name.
The worthy Sir George Somers knight, and others of commaund:
Maister Georg Pearcy, which is brother unto Northumberland.

Sir Fardinando Wayneman knight, and others of good fame:
That noble Lord, his company, which to Virginia came
And landed there: his number was One hundred Seaventy: then
Ad to the rest, and they make full, foure hundred able men.

Where they unto their labour fall, as men that meane to thrive:
Let’s pray that heaven may blesse them all and keep them long alive.
Those men that Vagrants liv’d with us, have there deserved well:
Their Governour writes in their praise, as divers Letters tel.

And to th’ Adventurers thus he writes, be not dismayd at all:
For scandall cannot doe us wrong, God will not let us fall.
Let England knowe our willingnesse, for that our worke is goode,
Wee hope to plant a Nation, where none before hath stood.

To glorifie the Lord tis done, and to no other end:
He that would crosse so good a worke, to God can be no friend.
There is no feare of hunger here, for Corne much store here growes,
Much fish the gallant Rivers yeild, tis truth, without suppose.

Great store of Fowle, of Venison, of Grapes and Mulberries,
Of Chesnuts, Walnuts, and such like, of fruits and Strawberries,
There is indeed no want at all: but some, condiciond ill,
That wish the worke should not goe on, with words doe seeme to kill.

And for an instance of their store, the noble Delaware,
Hath for the present hither sent, to testifie his care
In mannaging so good a worke, two gallant ships: by name
The Blessing and the Hercules, well fraught, and in the same

Two ships, are these commodities: Furres, Sturgeon, Caviare,
Blacke-walnut-tree, and some deale-boords, with such they laden are:
Some Pearle, some Wainscot and clapbords, with some Sassafras wood:
And Iron promist, for tis true, their Mynes are very good.

Then maugre scandall, false report, or any opposition
Th’ adventurers doe thus devulge: to men of good condition.
That he that wants shall have reliefe, be he of honest minde,
Apparel, coyne, or any thing, to such they will be kinde.

To such as to Virginia, do purpose to repaire:
And when that they shall thither come, each man shall have his share.
Day wages for the Laborer, and for his more content,
A house and garden plot shall have, besides, tis further ment

That every man shall have a part, and not thereof denaid:
Of generall profit, as if that he twelve pounds ten shillings paid,
And he that in Virginia, shall copper coyne receive.
For hyer or commodities, and will the country leave,

Upon delivery of such coyne, unto the Governour:
Shall by exchange at his returne, be by their Treasurer
Paid him in London at first sight, no man shall cause to grieve,
For tis their generall will and wish that every man should live.

The number of Adventurers, that are for this Plantation:
Are full eight hundred worthy men, some Noble, all of fashion.
Good, discreete, their worke is good, and as they have begun:
May Heaven assist them in their worke, and thus our newes is done.

FINIS.

Crown and Commonwealth

Queen Elizabeth II addresses the press and assembled military units at Patrick Henry Airport (now Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport); Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.
Queen Elizabeth II addresses the press and assembled military units at Patrick Henry Airport (now Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport); Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.

Queen Elizabeth, Philip Welcomed in Virginia

Gun Salute, 10–Hour Tour Greet British Royal Couple

By John Kinnier
Times–Dispatch News Bureau

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—Virginians welcomed Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip Wednesday with a booming 21–gun salute and a crowded 10–hour schedule of history, hospitality and occasionally clamorous acclamation.

The royal visit to Jamestown and Williamsburg, the first ever by a reigning British monarch, was a historic occasion recognized by the queen in several brief, graceful speeches during the day.

At Jamestown, a focal point of the queen’s American visit, the overseas expansion of the English–speaking people began and the British Commonwealth of Nations got its start.

“The great American nation was born at this historic place, 350 years ago,” Elizabeth said as she was welcomed by Governor Stanley at Jamestown Festival Park.

“I cannot think of a more appropriate point for us to start our visit to the United States,” she said.

“The settlement in Jamestown was the beginning of a series of overseas settlements made throughout the world by British pioneers. Jamestown grew and became the United States. Those other settlements grew and became nations now united in our great commonwealth.

“This festival illustrates these two stories, yours and ours. They are stories in which all of us, in the United States, in Britain, and throughout the commonwealth take a special pride. In essence, they are both stories of experiments and adventures in freedom,” she said.

Asks Ideals Be Pursued

Elizabeth asked that the ideals of the Jamestown settlers who established the first lasting British colony in the New World be pursued with faith and determination “so that 350 years from now our descendants will be as proud of us as we are of our forefathers.”

The queen’s full schedule, followed for the most part with split–second timing, included military honors upon her arrival at Patrick Henry Airport, a religious service in the Old Tower Church on Jamestown island, a hurried tour of the main exhibits at Jamestown Festival Park, tea at the College of William and Mary, an informal reception for some 1,500 guests at the Governor’s Palace and a state dinner at the Williamsburg Inn attended by the Governor and members of the state and federal festival commissions.

State police estimated that 50,000 persons saw the queen at Patrick Henry Airport, Williamsburg, Jamestown and along the route she took Wednesday on the first day of her visit to the United States.

It was a demanding schedule which began promptly at 1:30 p.m. as the queen stepped smilingly from the door of the Royal Canadian Air Force plane which brought the royal party from Ottawa and ended some 10 hours later as the queen and Prince Philip said goodnight to their dinner hosts at the Williamsburg Inn.

Throughout the day, the queen appeared calm, unhurried and happy; interested in the things she was shown and in the several dozen persons to whom she spoke.

The royal party being greeted by Wiley T. Buchanan, chief of protocol for the State Department, Governor Thomas B. Stanley, and British Ambassador Sir Harold Caccia; Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.
The royal party being greeted by Wiley T. Buchanan, chief of protocol for the State Department, Governor Thomas B. Stanley, and British Ambassador Sir Harold Caccia; Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.

The big Canadian plane touched ground at 1:27 p.m. and taxied to the point where the official welcoming party, headed by Wiley T. Buchanan, chief of protocol for the State Department, Governor Stanley and British Ambassador Sir Harold Caccia, had gathered. A crowd, estimated by state police at 10,000 persons, had been waiting nearly two hours.

Elizabeth stepped from the plane, paused an almost imperceptible moment, and smiled. Prince Philip followed almost at once, also smiling.

The queen walked slowly down the line of waiting officials and their wives, greeting each of them, then stood with Governor Stanley as the 82d Airborne Division band played “God Save the Queen” and the national anthem.

As the strains of the music died, an army battery fired a 21–gun salute. The queen and Governor Stanley, escorted by Maj. Lehman C. Black of the airborne unit, then reviewed an honor guard made up of members of each branch of the armed forces. Flags of the 10 British commonwealth nations and the American flag fluttered from standards borne by an army unit.

The queen left the airport with Buchanan and the Governor in President Eisenhower’s “bubble–top” limousine, brought from Washington by secret service personnel for the day. Prince Philip rode in a following car with Mrs. Buchanan and Mrs. Stanley.

LORDE, we beseche thee mercifully to heare us, and unto whom thou hast geven an heartie desyre to pray; graunt that by thy mightie ayde we may be defended; through Jesus Christ our Lorde.

The royal entourage drove to Jamestown island, some 20 miles away, for a worship service in the old church of 1639. There the Rt. Rev. George P. Gunn, bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Southern Virginia, read a special prayer for the royal family and recited the prayer used during the first recorded communion service at Jamestown June 21, 1607.

Elizabeth bowed her head solemnly as prayers were offered up for the President, the queen and peace among nations. And as a gift, she received a hand wrought copy of the church’s original silver communion service.

Queen Elizabeth II addresses an audience estimated at 10,000 at Jamestown Festival Park; Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.
Queen Elizabeth II addresses an audience estimated at 10,000 at Jamestown Festival Park; Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.

From Jamestown island, the royal couple was whisked to the court of welcome at Festival Park for a red–carpet reception from the full membership of both festival commissions and a crowd which state police Inspector P. W. Crews estimated at more than 10,000. The queen stood poised and solemn on the speakers’ dais as a marine corps band played “God Save the Queen” and the national anthem. The Union Jack was lowered from its flagpole and the royal standard was raised.

In welcoming the queen to the festival, Governor Stanley said that from the very inception of the plans for the Jamestown celebration, it had been “our fond hope that the reigning Sovereign of Britain might grace the celebration.”

“Here at Jamestown was born Britain’s greatest ally in the cause of freedom and justice,” he said.

Lewis McMurran, chairman of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission, escorted the queen and her party on a tour of the Old World Pavilion, the British exhibit at the park, and the reconstructed James Forte.

The royals were scheduled to visit the pier at Jamestown Festival Park where reproductions of the three Jamestown ships, the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery, were docked. The royal couple decided to go on board one of the ships. One reporter quipped that, "Except for the mild stampede that occurred when the queen departed from the script and went aboard the Susan Constant, everything went remarkably smoothly all day long." Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.
The royals were scheduled to visit the pier at Jamestown Festival Park where reproductions of the three Jamestown ships, the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery, were docked. The royal couple decided to go on board one of the ships. One reporter quipped that, “Except for the mild stampede that occurred when the queen departed from the script and went aboard the Susan Constant, everything went remarkably smoothly all day long.” Virginia State Chamber of Commerce Collection, Library of Virginia.

The tour’s only unscheduled stop came at the full–scale copies of the three ships which brought the settlers to Jamestown. The couple had not been scheduled to board the vessels but they climbed the gangplank of the Susan Constant, largest of the ships.

As the queen and Philip left the ship and prepared to go to Williamsburg, a flight of 18 jet bombers—six from the Royal Air Force, six from the United States Navy and six from the United States Air Force—roared across the sky above the ship in an aerial salute.

Before leaving Festival Park for Williamsburg, Philip paused once more to speak to several children waving Union Jacks and crying, “Long live the queen.” They were children of Mrs. Louis Zuzma of Williamsburg, formerly of Australia, and of Mrs. L. T. Warriner, a Williamsburg resident who formerly lived in England.

From the park, Elizabeth and Philip came here to the home of Alvin D. Chandler, president of the College of William and Mary, and Mrs. Chandler where they had tea at 4:20 pm.

Queen Elizabeth II speaks from the balcony of the Christopher Wren Building at the College of William and Mary; WRVA Radio Collection, Library of Virginia.
Queen Elizabeth II speaks from the balcony of the Christopher Wren Building at the College of William and Mary; WRVA Radio Collection, Library of Virginia.

Twenty–five minutes later, the queen led the royal party to the Christopher Wren Building on the college campus. Additional crowds waited outside the building for a glimpse of the queen. On a small balcony draped with green and yellow bunting the royal couple exchanged gifts with James M. Robertson, rector of the board of visitors of the college, and Chandler.

The queen praised the “first college of royal foundation” in North America. I cherish this link between the crown and your college…because it is a part of our joint histories, particularly as it is a part of our histories in which we can both take pride. It also demonstrates the very close association which always existed between learning, the arts and sciences of our countries,” she said.

The queen gave the college a copy of the statutes of the Order of the Garter which had been presented to Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, the nephew of King William, “some three years after he and Queen Mary had granted a charter to their royal college in Virginia.”

The college in turn gave the queen a portfolio of original line drawings of college buildings.

After leaving the college, Elizabeth and Philip mounted a horse drawn phaeton for a 20–minute ride down Duke of Gloucester St. to the Governor’s Palace. Riding with the queen and Philip were Winthrop Rockefeller, chairman of the board of Colonial Williamsburg and Mrs. Rockefeller.

At the palace some 1,500 persons nibbled on 4,000 hot hors d’oeuvres, 5,000 cold canapes and Dutch sandwiches.

At the reception, the queen passed slowly though a long open column of guests, stopping frequently to have persons presented to her. Several steps behind, Philip chatted with guests along the way.

Following the reception the queen and Philip made a short inspection of the restored Colonial Capitol and then were driven to the Williamsburg Inn to dress for dinner. They entered the inn and ended there the public portion of their local visit, at 6:50.

Richmond Times-Dispatch, 17 October 1957.

Virginia and Geneva

Sir Edwin Sandys.
Sir Edwin Sandys.

One must recognize that there was a very definite purpose and aim in the minds of the leaders of the Virginia Company in giving the name “City” to these raw little settlements [James City, Kecoughtan (Elizabeth City from 1621), the City of Henricus, and Charles City]. In English thought and custom in the seventeenth century, the appellation “city” was never given to a community, however large in population, unless it was the “see city” of a diocese and had a cathedral as the seat of its bishop. As there was not the slightest intention of sending a bishop to Virginia, or of establishing a diocese with a see city, one must look elsewhere than to the authority of English precedent to find the reason for the four “cities” in Virginia.

The explanation seems to be very clear. The group of men with Sir Edwin Sandys as their leading spirit who were formulating the plans and guiding the destinies of the Virginia Company were seeking to create a form of government which would give the greatest degree of autonomy and self-government to the settlers in these new communities, who to so great an extent would be thrown upon their own resources. Regardless of the question of the degree of loyalty of the radical puritans to the monarchial form of government, the settlers in Virginia were removed by three thousand miles of ocean from their king, as the source of civil authority, and from their bishop as the head of ecclesiastical order and government. They must, consequently, for their own protection and the welfare of their settlements, have as large a degree of authority to govern themselves and to make and administer their own laws as was consistent with their loyalty to both king and Church. Certainly it must have been realized that neither Parliament nor any group of officials of the company living in England could wisely enact laws governing local conditions in Jamestown, because they could not know enough about local conditions; nor could any court in England exercise authority there through lack of jurisdiction. Sir Edwin Sandys, and his fellow-members of the “Court” or executive committee of the Virginia Company, had the clear political sagacity to perceive that, if their colony was to develop into anything more than a trading post in a foreign land, its people must have the authority to govern themselves. There was no provision for dukedoms, palatinates or baronies with their political powers and civil courts. The plan later developed by the Caroline kings of granting great tracts of American land to favored groups of proprietors, to whom were given semi-regal authority over their “subject” settlers for the sake of the financial returns accruing therefrom, does not seem to have been conceived when either Virginia or Massachusetts was established. The source of their government and the authority of their courts must be found in the settlers themselves, as the owners of their own land, and not as tenants owing fealty and service to overlords who owned the land, and who, in consequence of that ownership, could make laws and establish courts to enforce their edicts.

Such freedom of self-government of and by the people themselves could not be found in any community in England at that time. The evidence as to the source whence he drew his conception of colonial local self-government is to be found in the words of Sir Edwin Sandys himself. “If ever God from heaven,” quoth that doughty puritan, “did constitute and direct a frame of government on earth it was that of Geneva.”

Virginia’s Mother Church and the Political Conditions Under Which It Grew,
Brydon, G. MacLaren (George MacLaren), pp. 31-32.

God’s Most Merciful Deliverance

That the 22d of March be yeerly solemnized as holliday and all other hollidays (except when they fall two together) betwixt the feasts of the annuntiation of the blessed virgin and St. Michael the archangell, then only the first to be observed by reason of our necessities.

— Statutes at Large of Virginia, I, compiled by William W. Hening.

In consideration of Gods most mercifull deliuerance of so many in this Cuntrie from the treachery of the Indian on the 22th day of March last: the Gouernor with the advice of the Counsell of State hath thought it very fitt, that the 22th day of March both this present yeare and for euer hereafter (in memory of that great preservation) be in this Cuntrie celebrated Holy.

— The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 8. Virginia Records Manuscripts. 1606-1737. Susan Myra Kingsbury, editor. Records of the Virginia Company, 1606-26, Volume IV: Miscellaneous Records.

Being Especiall Souldiers Emprest in This Sacred Cause

First since we owe our highest and supreme duty, our greatest, and all our allegeance to him, from whom all power and authoritie is derived, and flowes as from the first, and onely fountaine, and being especiall souldiers emprest in this sacred cause, we must alone expect our successe from him, who is onely the blesser of all good attempts, the King of kings, the commaunder of commaunders, and Lord of Hosts, I do strictly commaund and charge all Captaines and Officers, of what qualitie or nature soever, whether commanders in the field, or in the towne, or townes, forts or fortresses, to have a care that the Almightie God bee duly and daily served, and that thy call upon their people to heare Sermons, as that also they diligently frequent Morning and Evening praier themselves by their owne exemplar and daily life, and dutie herein, encouraging others thereunto, and that such, who shall often and wilfully absent themselves, be duly punished according to the martiall law in that case provided.

— Article 1.1, Articles, Lawes, and Orders, Divine, Politique, and Martiall for the Colony in Virginea: first established by Sir Thomas Gates Knight, Lieutenant Generall, the 24. of May 1610. exemplified and approved by the Right Honourable Sir Thomas West Knight, Lord Lawair, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall the 12. of June 1610. Againe exemplified and enlarged by Sir Thomas Dale Knight, Marshall, and Deputie Governour, the 22. of June. 1611, as recorded by William Strachey, Secretary of the Colony of Virginia, 1609 – 1611.

So Full of Misery and Misgovernment

From hence in two days (only by the help of tydes, no wind stirring), we plyed it sadly up the river, and the three and twentieth of May we cast anchor before James Towne, where we landed, and our much grieved Governour first visiting the church caused the bell to be rung, at which (all such as were able to come forth of their houses) repayred to the church where our Minister, Maister Bucke made a zealous and sorrowful Prayer, finding all things so contrary to our expectation, so full of misery and misgovernment. After service our Governour caused me to read his commission, and Captaine Percy (then President) delivered up unto him his commission, the Old Patent, and the Councell Seale.

William Strachey on the precarious state of the Virginia Colony in 1610.