“Whereas George Guelf…”

Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Mitchell, Henry, The State Arms of the Union, Boston: L. Prang & Co. (1875).
Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Mitchell, Henry, The State Arms of the Union, Boston: L. Prang & Co. (1875).

Whereas George Guelf king of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover, heretofore entrusted with the exercise of the kingly office in this government hath endeavored to pervert the same into a detestable and insupportable tyranny;

by putting his negative on laws the most wholesome & necessary for ye public good;

by denying to his governors permission to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operations for his assent, and, when so suspended, neglecting to attend to them for many years;

by refusing to pass certain other laws, unless the person to be benefited by them would relinquish the inestimable right of representation in the legislature

by dissolving legislative assemblies repeatedly and continually for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people;

when dissolved, by refusing to call others for a long space of time, thereby leaving the political system without any legislative head;

by endeavoring to prevent the population of our country, & for that purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners & raising the condition [lacking appro]priations of lands;

[by keeping among u]s, in times of peace, standing armies and ships of war;

[lack]ing to render the military independent of & superior to the civil power;

by combining with others to subject us to a foreign jurisdiction, giving his assent to their pretended acts of legislation.

for quartering large bodies of troops among us;

for cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

for imposing taxes on us without our consent;

for depriving us of the benefits of trial by jury;

for transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences; and

for suspending our own legislatures & declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever;

by plundering our seas, ravaging our coasts, burning our towns and destroying the lives of our people;

by inciting insurrections of our fellow subjects with the allurements of forfeiture & confiscation;

by prompting our negroes to rise in arms among us; those very negroes whom he hath from time to time by an inhuman use of his negative he hath refused permission to exclude by law;

by endeavoring to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, & conditions of existence;

by transporting at this time a large army of foreign mercenaries [to complete] the works of death, desolation & tyranny already begun with circum[stances] of cruelty & perfidy so unworthy the head of a civilized nation;

by answering our repeated petitions for redress with a repetition of injuries;

and finally by abandoning the helm of government and declaring us out of his allegiance & protection;

by which several acts of misrule the said George Guelf has forfeited the kingly office and has rendered it necessary for the preservation of the people that he should be immediately deposed from the same, and divested of all its privileges, powers, & prerogatives:

And forasmuch as the public liberty may be more certainly secured by abolishing an office which all experience hath shewn to be inveterately inimical thereto or which and it will thereupon become further necessary to re-establish such ancient principles as are friendly to the rights of the people and to declare certain others which may co-operate with and fortify the same in future.

Be it therefore enacted by the authority of the people that the said, George Guelf be, and he hereby is deposed from the kingly office within this government and absolutely divested of all it’s [sic] rights, powers, and prerogatives: and that he and his descendants and all persons acting by or through him, and all other persons whatsoever shall be and forever remain incapable of the same: and that the said office shall henceforth cease and never more either in name or substance be re-established within this colony.

— Thomas Jefferson, Proposed Constitution for Virginia, June, 1776.

Donum Sanationis

Arms of the Cardinal Duke of York, Henry Benedict Stuart (Henry IX of England, II of Ireland, and I of Scotland) in the Jacobite peerage.
Arms of the Cardinal Duke of York, Henry Benedict Stuart (Henry IX of England, II of Ireland, and I of Scotland) in the Jacobite peerage.

MALCOLM
Well, more anon.—Comes the king forth, I pray you?

DOCTOR
Ay, sir; there are a crew of wretched souls
That stay his cure. Their malady convinces
The great assay of art, but at his touch—
Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand—
They presently amend.

MALCOLM
I thank you, doctor.

(Exit DOCTOR.)

MACDUFF
What’s the disease he means?

MALCOLM
‘Tis called the evil.
A most miraculous work in this good king,
Which often since my here-remain in England
I have seen him do. How he solicits heaven,
Himself best knows, but strangely visited people,
All swoll’n and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye,
The mere despair of surgery, he cures,
Hanging a golden stamp about their necks,
Put on with holy prayers. And, ’tis spoken,
To the succeeding royalty he leaves
The healing benediction. With this strange virtue,
He hath a heavenly gift of prophecy,
And sundry blessings hang about his throne,
That speak him full of grace.

Macbeth, Act 4. Scene 3.

[N]o one is so perfectly cured, as not to be attacked again by the same disease, if he be so unfortunate to lose the coin which the king hangs about his neck when he is touched, in which case he must be touched again.

à la Haye, Relation … du Voyage et Sèjour du Roy de la Grande Bretagne &c., 1660.

AT THE HEALING.

PREVENT us, O Lord, in all our doings with thy most gracious favour, and further us with thy continual help, that in all our works begun, continued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy Name, and finally by thy mercy obtain everlasting life: through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Holy Gospel is written in the 16th Chapter of Saint Mark, beginning at the 14th Verse.

JESUS appeared unto the Eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my Name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following.

Lord have mercy upon us.
Christ have mercy upon us.
Lord have mercy upon us.

OUR Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from evil. Amen.

Then shall the infirm Persons, one by one, be presented to the Queen upon their Knees; and as every one is presented and while the Queen is laying Her Hands upon them, and putting the Gold about their Necks, the Chaplain that officiates, turning himself to her Majesty, shall say these words following:

GOD give a Blessing to this Work; and grant that these sick Persons, on whom the Queen lays her Hands, may recover, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

After all have been presented, the Chaplain shall say,
[These answers are to be made by them that come to be Healed.]

Vers. O Lord, save thy servants;
Resp. Who put their trust in thee.
Vers. Send unto them help from thy holy place.
Resp. And evermore mightily defend them.
Vers. Help us, O God of our Salvation.
Resp. And for the glory of thy Name deliver us, and be merciful unto us sinners, for thy Name’s sake.
Vers. O Lord, hear our prayers.
Resp. And let our cry come unto thee.

Let us pray.

O ALMIGHTY God, who art the Giver of all health, and the aid of them that seek to thee for succour, we call upon thee for thy help and goodness mercifully to be shewed upon these thy servants, that they being healed of their Infirmities may give thanks unto thee in thy holy Church, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Then the Chaplain, standing with his face towards them that come to be healed, shall say,

THE Almighty Lord, who is a most strong tower to all them that put their trust in him, to whom all things in heaven, in earth, and under the earth, do bow and obey, be now and evermore thy defence; and make you know and feel, that there is none other Name under heaven given to man, in whom, and through whom, thou mayest receive health and salvation, but only the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all evermore. Amen.

(As appended to the Book of Common Prayer during the reign of Queen Anne. The service was thus retained in a Prayer-Book printed in the fifth or sixth year of George I, though it is said that the queen was the last (de facto) sovereign to touch for the sure of the Evil.)

* * *

The practice of the Royal Healing seems to have reached its zenith during the reign of Charles II (evidently no fewer than ninety-two thousand persons availed themselves of His Majesty’s touch during the twenty years following the Restoration). After the Revolution, William of Orange, on being requested to touch, refused to do so, referring applicants instead to his exiled uncle at St. Germain. Anne touched frequently, one of her last patients being Dr. Samuel Johnson. Like William III, George I (and the succeeding Hanoverians) positively refused to touch, perhaps on account of the extravagance of the display, to which the monarch was temperamentally averse, or perhaps because the service seemed too Catholic, but the Stuarts continued the practice in exile — James III, Charles Edward Stuart, and finally by the Cardinal Duke, whose Diary contains a great many entries to this effect.

Such an Inveteracy As Justifies My Suspicion

Print of the Bodleian Plate, depicting the colonial architecture of Williamsburg, Virginia. The plate, discovered in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, was critical to the reconstruction of Williamsburg in the early-mid 20th century. Collection: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library. Accession Number: 15/5/3090.00557. Title: College of William and Mary Map date: ca. 1781-ca. 1782. Photograph date: ca. 1935. Location: North and Central America: United States; Virginia, Williamsburg. Materials: gelatin silver print. Image: 7 x 9 1/4 in. Provenance: Transfer from the College of Architecture, Art and Planning.
Print of the Bodleian Plate, depicting the colonial architecture of Williamsburg, Virginia. The plate, discovered in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, was critical to the reconstruction of Williamsburg in the early-mid 20th century. Collection: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library. Accession Number: 15/5/3090.00557. Title: College of William and Mary Map date: ca. 1781-ca. 1782. Photograph date: ca. 1935. Location: North and Central America: United States; Virginia, Williamsburg. Materials: gelatin silver print. Image: 7 x 9 1/4 in. Provenance: Transfer from the College of Architecture, Art and Planning.

Saturday, the 10th of June, 15 Geo. III. 1775.

A Meſſage from the Council by Mr Blair:

Mr Speaker,

    His Excellency, the Governor, hath deſired the Preſident to communicate to this Houſe his anſwer to the joint Addreſs of the Council and the Houſe of Burgeſſes, preſented Yeſterday to his Excellency; and he preſented the ſaid Anſwer at the Bar.

And then the Meſſenger withdrew.
The Governor‘s Anſwer was read, and is as followeth, viz.

Gentlemen, of the Council, Mr Speaker, and
    Gentlemen of the Houſe of Burgeſſes.

    In anſwer to your joint Addreſs, preſented by your deputies yeſterday, I acquaint you, that it appears to me the commotions among the People, and their menaces and threats (an enumeration of which I forbear, out of tenderneſs) have been of ſuch public notoriety, that you muſt ſuppoſe many of his Majeſty’s ſubjects in this Colony, whether they meditated or not, have at leaſt manifeſted, ſuch an inveteracy as juſtifies my ſuſpicion that they would not heſitate to commit a Crime, which, horrid and atrocious as it is, I had juſt ground to apprehend. And when the diſpoſition which the Houſe of Burgeſſes have ſhown towards me, the returns they have made to the reſpect and civility which I have been forward to offer to them, the countenance they have given to the violent and diſorderly proceedings of the People, his Majeſty’s magazine having been forced and rifled in the preſence of ſome of the members of the Houſe of Burgeſſes, and, by the information of the Committee of the Houſe appointed to inſpect the Magazine, no other endeavours have been uſed than to prevail on the People to return the Arms taken out, but not to commit the Perſons in whoſe poſſeſſion they were found, in order that they might be brought to the puniſhment due to ſo heinous an offence, no leſs againſt the peace and good order of the Country than the dignity and authority of the King; when a body of Men aſſembled in the City of Williamſburg, not only to the knowledge, but with the approbation of every body, for the avowed purpoſe of attacking a party of the Kings forces, which, without the leaſt foundation, it was reported were marching to my protection, and which, if true, ought to have been approved and aided, not oppoſed and inſulted, by all good and loyal Subjects; when eſpecially the Houſe of Burgeſſes, or a committee of the Houſe (which is the ſame) has ventured upon a ſtep fraught with the moſt alarming conſequences, in ordering and appointing guards, without even conſulting me, to mount in the city of Williamſburg, as is pretended, to protect the Magazine, but which may well be doubted, as there then remained nothing therein which required being guarded; but if otherwiſe, this ſtep nevertheleſs ſhews a deſign to uſurp the executive power, which, if it be perſiſted in, ſubverts the conſtitution: I ſay, when theſe circumſtances duly conſidered, I may ſubmit it to your own judgment whether I could reaſonably expect any good effect from communicating the ground of my uneaſineſs to you.

    But as you are pleaſed, Gentlemen, now to aſſure me, that you will cheerfully concur in any meaſure that may be propoſed proper for the ſecurity of myſelf and family, I leave to your own conſideration whether that can be effected any other wiſe than by reinſtating me in the full powers of my office, as his Majeſty’s repreſentative, by opening the Courts of Juſtice, and reſtoring the energy of the Laws, which is all the ſecurity requiſite for all parties; by diſarming all independent companies, or other bodies of Men raiſed and acting in defiance of lawful authority, and by obliging thoſe who have taken any of his Majeſty’s public ſtore of Arms to deliver them up immediately; and, what is not leſs eſſential than any thing by your own example, and every means in your power, aboliſhing that Spirit of perſecution, which, to the diſgrace of humanity, now reigns, and purſues with menaces and acts of oppreſſion, all perſons who differ from the multitude in political opinion, or are attached from principles and duty to the ſervice of their King and government; by which means, the deluded People never hearing but the diſfigured ſide of a Story, their minds are continually kept in that ferment which ſubjects them forever to be impoſed upon, and leads to the commiſſion of any deſperate Act, and endangers the general ſafety. For the more ſpeedy accompliſhment of theſe ends, and the great object and neceſſary buſineſs of the Seſſions, I ſhall have no objection to your adjourning to the Town of York, where I ſhall meet you, and remain with you till your buſineſs be finiſhed.

With reſpect to your entreaty that I ſhould return to the Palace, as the moſt likely means of quieting the minds of the People, I muſt repreſent to you, that, unleſs there be among you a ſincere and active deſire to ſeize this opportunity, now offered to you by Parliament, of eſtabliſhing the freedom of your Country upon a fixed and known foundation, and of uniting yourſelves with your fellow ſubjects of Great Britain in one common bond of intereſt, and mutual aſſiſtance, my return to Williamſburg would be as fruitleſs to the People, as, poſſibly, it might be dangerous to myſelf. But if your proceedings manifeſt that happy diſpoſition, which is to be deſired ardently by every good friend to this as well as the Mother Country, I aſſure you, in the warmth of my heart, that I will return, with the greateſt joy, and ſhall conſider it as the moſt fortunate event of my Life if you give me an opportunity to be an inſtrument of promoting your happineſs, and a mediator between you and the ſupreme authority, to obtain for you every explanation of your doubts, and the fulleſt conviction of the ſincerity of their deſire to confirm to you the undiſturbed enjoyment of your rights and liberty; and I ſhall be well pleaſed, by bringing my family back again, that you ſhould have ſuch a pledge of my attachment to this Country, and of my wiſhes to cultivate a cloſe and laſting intimacy with the inhabitants.

DUNMORE.

Barefooted Tatterdemalions

Woodcut depicting James Rivington being hanged in effigy, as it appeared in Rivington’s New-York Gazetteer, April 20, 1775.
Woodcut depicting James Rivington being hanged in effigy, as it appeared in Rivington’s New-York Gazetteer, April 20, 1775.

It cannot have escaped the notice of the most inattentive observer, that this country has been brought to its present state of distress and confusion, chiefly by the art and industry of pretended patriots, both in England and America, who were stimulated by indigence, avarice, or ambition, to embroil the government, and mislead the people. The Pennsylvania Ledger or the Philadelphia Market-Day Advertiser, February 28, 1778.

THE REBELS (1778)
(sung to the tune: Black Joak)

THE REBELS.

YE brave, honest subjects, who dare to be loyal,
And have stood the brunt of every trial,
Of hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns:
Come listen awhile, and I’ll sing you a song;
I’ll show you, those Yankees are all in the wrong,
Who, with blustering look and most awkward gait,
‘Gainst their lawful sovereign dare for to prate,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

The arch-rebels, barefooted tatterdemalions,
In baseness exceed all other rebellions,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.
To rend the empire, the most infamous lies,
Their mock-patriot Congress, do always devise;
Independence, like the first of rebels, they claim,
But their plots will be damn’d in the annals of fame,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

Forgetting the mercies of Great Britain’s king,
Who saved their forefathers’ necks from the string;
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.
They renounce allegiance and take up their arms,
Assemble together like hornets in swarms,
So dirty their backs, and so wretched their show,
That carrion-crow follows wherever they go,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

With loud peals of laughter, your sides, sirs, would crack,
To see General Convict and Colonel Shoe-black,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.
See cobblers and quacks, rebel priests and the like,
Pettifoggers and barbers, with sword and with pike,
All strutting, the standard of Satan beside,
And honest names using, their black deeds to hide.
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

This perjured banditti, now ruin this land,
And o’er its poor people claim lawless command,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.
Their pasteboard dollars, prove a common curse,
They don’t chink like silver and gold in our purse;
With nothing their leaders have paid their debts off,
Their honor’s, dishonor, and justice they scoff,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

For one lawful ruler, many tyrants we’ve got,
Who force young and old to their wars, to be shot,
With their hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.
Our good king, God speed him ! never usèd men so,
We then could speak, act, and like freemen could go;
But committees enslave us, our Liberty’s gone,
Our trade and church murder’d; our country’s undone,
By hunting-shirts, and rifle-guns.

Come take up your glasses, each true loyal heart,
And may every rebel meet his due dessert,
With his hunting-shirt, and rifle-gun.
May Congress, Conventions, those damn’d inquisitions,
Be fed with hot sulphur, from Lucifer’s kitchens,
May commerce and peace again be restored,
And Americans own their true sovereign lord.
Then oblivion to shirts, and rifle-guns.
God save the King.

(Originally published in The Pennsylvania Ledger, 1778.)
Lyrics: Captain Smyth, Simcoe’s Queen’s Rangers.

Two Kings’ Heads Not Worth a Crown

Counterstamped Spanish American 8 Real coin issued by Treasury with a value of 4s. 9d. to supplement a deficiency in British silver coins; the original coin, a 1787 F.M. 8 Real from the Mexico City Mint, Mexico. Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Counterstamped Spanish American 8 Real coin issued by Treasury with a value of 4s. 9d. to supplement a deficiency in British silver coins; the original coin, a 1787 F.M. 8 Real from the Mexico City Mint, Mexico. Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

SPANISH DOLLARS. Some of your readers are old enough to remember the time when Spanish dollars circulated in this country. They were made current in Britain by stamping them with the head of the sovereign, George III. The punch by which this was done was about the size of the king’s head, or “duty mark,” on silver plate. I have just met with the following epigram on this subject, which is worth preserving in your pages. I quote from a letter of Robert Southey’s, dated April 26, 1797, printed in Joseph Cottle’s Reminiscences of Coleridge and Southey, 1847, p. 210:

I supped last night with Ben Flower, of Cambridge, at Mr. P.’s, and never saw so much coarse strength in a countenance. He repeated to me an epigram on the dollars, which perhaps you may not have seen:–

“To make Spanish dollars with Englishmen pass,
Stamp the head of a fool on the tail of an ass.”

A.O.V.P.

— Notes and Queries, 3rd S. IX. May 5, ’66.

SPANISH DOLLARS (3rd S. ix. 368.) — Your correspondent has committed an error in this couplet, which spoils the sense. The tail of an ass is nothing. On these dollars the head of George III., in an octagon cartouche, about three-eighths of an inch by one quarter of an inch, was stamped upon the neck of Charles III., and this gave point to the line, which should be:

“To make dollars current and legally pass,
Stamp the head of a fool on the neck of an ass.”

H.W.D.

— Notes and Queries, 3rd S. IX. June 2, ’66.

In 1797 an attempt was made by the Treasury to supplement the deficiency of silver coinage by the issue of Spanish dollars, and half, quarter and eighth dollars, countermarked on the obverse with the bust of George III, the stamp, a small oval one, being that used by the Goldsmiths’ Company for stamping the plate of this country. These counterstamped dollars, &c., have on one side the bust of Charles III (or IV) of Spain, and on the other the Spanish arms. The dollar was to be current at 4s. 9d., which gave rise to the saying “two kings’ heads not worth a crown.” On account of the numerous forgeries of this counterstamp, another one was adopted in 1804. It was somewhat larger, octagonal in shape, and with the head of the king as on the Maundy penny of the time. This stamp also was soon counterfeited. In the same year the Bank of England received permission to issue a dollar of the current value of 5s., and this permission was extended in 1811 to pieces of the value of three shillings and eighteen-pence. […] Dies were also prepared for pieces of the value of 5s. 6d. and 9d., but none were issued for circulation.

— Herbert Appold Grueber, Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland in the British Museum, p. 150.

Knavery Seems to Be So Much the Striking Feature of Its Inhabitants

I cannot conclude without mentioning how sensibly I feel the dismemberment of America from this empire, and that I should be miserable indeed if I did not feel that no blame on that account can be laid at my door, and I did not also know that knavery seems to be so much the striking feature of its inhabitants that it may not in the end be an evil that they will become aliens to this kingdom.

— King George III, Letter to Shelburne, 1782.