Tiarnas na hÉireann

The aunciente Irish descend from the Spaniards whoe, above 1000 yeares agoe got that kingdome from the Graecians, and governed it with just and holie lawes, being holpen thereon by the doctrine and holynes of many holy miraculous and learned men of there owne, until the comeing of the Danes, the which by overthrowing and destroying churches and Universityes in that island, broughte in much barbaritie, and evill customes, with tyranny, after which there followed, even in the Irish themselves sinnes and offences against God, civil wars, and domesticall hatred, murthers, &c.

Notable was the wickednesse of Dermitius king of Leynster, one of the five kynges of Ireland, who took away by force the wife of O’Roarke, another king of the same island, for which the said Dermitius being pursued by O’Roarke, was fayne to fly the land, and to crave aide of Henry the second King of Englande, whoe at this time was in France, and gave free libertye to all his subjectes, that voluntarilie would, to helpe Dermetius to recover his lost kingdome, whereupon, with ayde of certaine of the king of England’s subjectes, he regained his owne, and laied hold on other men’s lands besides.

Henry the second seeing the Irish divided amongst themselves by a false relation (as they say) to Pope Adrian the fourth, an Englishman; obtained of his holynes lycense to conquer the land, and to be collector of the church rentes, which the see Apostolicke had in Ireland, with the title of Lord of Ireland: But after the kings of Englande forsaking the true fayth have by their own proper authoritie intitled themselves Kings of Ireland.

— Briefe relation of Ireland, and the diversity of Irish in the samePhilip O’Sullivan Beare,
originally written in Spanish in the early XVII century.

To the Monastery To Which He Belongs

Cross of the Scriptures, Cathedral, Temple Doolin and South Cross at the Monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis) situated in County Offaly, Ireland, on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
Cross of the Scriptures, Cathedral, Temple Doolin and South Cross at the Monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis) situated in County Offaly, Ireland, on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
  1. The jurists say that tithe of cattle should be offered once and on that account it will be most holy, i.e., the tithe should not be offered again. But others of the true faith affirm that we should give tithes of living and mortal things to God every year, since every year we enjoy His gifts.
  2. Also, of all fruits of the soil a tithe ought to be offered once a year to the Lord, for as it is said: “Whatever has been once consecrated to God, will be most holy in the sight of the Lord.” For the tithe should not be offered repeatedly from those things, as the learned Columman has taught. But of the fruits of the soil a tenth part ought to be offered every year, because they are produced every year.
  3. Also, tithes are from all living things. So the first fruits of everything, and the animal that is born first in the year should be given. For the first born of animals are like first fruits; and the first born of men and of animals may be offered.
  4. Also, concerning tithes in herds and first fruits. First born are those which are born before any others are born in that year. It should be known how great is the weight of the first fruits, i.e., nine or twelve measures. Hence, the measure of the offering should be sufficient material for nine or twelve loaves. But of vegetables it should be as much as can be carried in the hand. It ought to be paid at the beginning of the summer, just as it was offered once a year to the priests of Jerusalem. But in the New Testament each would offer it to the monastery to which he belongs. And toward this would be especially charitable; of the first-born let males, never females, be offered.
  5. Also, if any have less substance than the tithe they shall not pay the tithe.
  6. Also, in order that all might find it convenient to offer tithes in some way to God, if they have only one cow or ox, let them divide the price of the cow into ten parts and give a tenth part to God. And so let it be done for other things…

— The Irish Canons: Collection of the Tithe, c. 750.

(Source: J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, (Paris, 1862), Vol. XCVI, pp. 1319-1320; reprinted in Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo & Tannen, 1965), pp. 378-379.)